Commerce forex nigérien
In November and December , Niger held presidential and legislative elections. He was re-elected unopposed in and
ATCON launches book on 100 leading telecom, ICT personalities
During the period, the French government banned all political parties except the PPN, effectively making Niger a one-party state. On 11 July France agreed to Niger becoming fully independent. Independence was declared on 3 August under the leadership of Prime Minister Diori.
During his presidency, Diori's government favored the maintenance of traditional social structures and the retention of close economic ties with France. He was re-elected unopposed in and Diori gained worldwide respect for his role as a spokesman for African affairs and as a popular arbitrator in conflicts involving other African nations.
Domestically, however, his administration was rife with corruption , and the government was unable to implement much-needed reforms or to alleviate the widespread famine brought on by the Sahelian drought of the early s. Increasingly criticized at home for his negligence in domestic matters, Diori put down a coup in and narrowly escaped assassination in Faced with an attempted military coup and attacks by members of Sawaba, he used French advisers and troops to counter threats to his rule, despite student and union protests against what they perceived French neocolonialism.
However, his relationship with France suffered when his government voiced dissatisfaction with the level of investment in uranium production when French President Georges Pompidou visited Niger in The PPN functioned as a platform for a handful of Politburo leaders grouped around Diori and his advisors Boubou Hama and Diamballa Maiga , who were largely unchanged from their first election in By the party had not held a congress since one was scheduled for late during the famine induced political crisis, but never held.
The PPN election lists were made up of traditional rulers from the main ethnic regions who, upon election to the Assembly, were given only ceremonial power. Ethnic tensions, too, mounted during Diori's regime. The Politburo and successive cabinets were made up almost exclusively of Djerma , Songhai and Maouri ethnic groups from the west of the country, the same ethnic base the French had relied on during colonial rule.
Widespread civil disorder followed allegations that some government ministers were misappropriating stocks of food aid and accused Diori of consolidating power. Diori limited cabinet appointments to fellow Djerma, family members, and close friends.
In addition, he acquired new powers by declaring himself the minister of foreign and defense affairs. Diori was imprisoned until and remained under house arrest. The government that followed, while plagued by coup attempts of its own, survived until While a period of relative prosperity, the military government of the period allowed little free expression and engaged in arbitrary imprisonment and killing.
The first presidential elections took place in 33 years after independence , and the first municipal elections only took place in Upon Kountché's death in , he was succeeded by his Chief of Staff and cousin, Col. Saibou liberalized some of Niger's laws and policies, and promulgated a new constitution.
He released political prisoners, including Diori and his old political nemesis Djibo Bakary. However, President Saibou's efforts to control political reforms failed in the face of union and student demands to institute a multi-party democratic system. The Saibou regime acquiesced to these demands by the end of New political parties and civic associations sprang up, and a National Conference was convened in July to prepare the way for the adoption of a new constitution and the holding of free and fair elections.
The debate was often contentious and accusatory, but under the leadership of Prof. André Salifou, the conference developed consensus on the modalities of a transitional government. A transitional government was installed in November to manage the affairs of state until the institutions of the Third Republic were put in place in April While the economy deteriorated over the course of the transition, certain accomplishments stand out, including the successful conduct of a constitutional referendum; the adoption of key legislation such as the electoral and rural codes; and the holding of several free, fair, and nonviolent nationwide elections.
Freedom of the press flourished with the appearance of several new independent newspapers. In , Mahamane Ousmane , the Democratic and Social Convention CDS party candidate, won the presidential election with the support of a coalition of parties.
The agreement between the parties fell apart in leading to governmental paralysis as the CDS on its own no longer had a majority in the assembly.
The prime minister then prepared for a surprise attack. Since Tuareg and Toubou groups that had been leading the Tuareg Rebellion claiming they lacked attention and resources from the central government. As the culmination of an initiative started in , the government signed peace accords in April with these groups.
The government agreed to absorb some former rebels in the military and, with French assistance, help others return to a productive civilian life. The paralysis of government between the President and the Prime Minister who no longer agreed gave Col. Ibrahim Baré Maïnassara a rationale to overthrow the Third Republic and depose the first democratically elected president of Niger, on 27 January While leading a military authority that ran the government Conseil de Salut National during a six-month transition period, Baré enlisted specialists to draft a new constitution for a Fourth Republic announced in May Baré organized a presidential election in June He ran against four other candidates, including Ousmane.
When his efforts to justify his coup and subsequent questionable election failed to convince donors to restore multilateral and bilateral economic assistance, a desperate Baré ignored the international embargo on Libya seeking funds for Niger's economy.
In repeated violations of basic civil liberties by the regime, opposition leaders were imprisoned; journalists often arrested, beaten, and deported by an unofficial militia composed of police and military; and independent media offices were looted and burned with impunity. In April , Baré was assassinated in a coup led by Maj. Daouda Malam Wanké who established a transitional National Reconciliation Council to oversee the drafting of a constitution for a Fifth Republic with a French style semi-presidential system.
In votes that international observers found to be generally free and fair, the Nigerien electorate approved the new constitution in July and held legislative and presidential elections in October and November The council transitioned to civilian rule in December In July , Niger held municipal elections nationwide as part of its decentralization process.
Some 3, people were elected to new local governments in newly established communes. The ruling MNSD party won more positions than any other political party; however, opposition parties made significant gains.
In November and December , Niger held presidential and legislative elections. This was the first presidential election with a democratically elected incumbent and a test to Niger's young democracy. The predominantly Tuareg group issued a number of demands, mainly related to development in the north. It attacked military and other facilities and laid landmines in the north. The resulting insecurity devastated Niger's tourist industry and deterred investment in mining and oil.
Algeria helped negotiate an August Malian peace deal, which was broken by a rebel faction in December, crushed by the Malian military and wholesale defections of rebels to the government. Niger saw heavy fighting and disruption of Uranium production in the mountainous north, before a Libyan backed peace deal, aided by a factional split among the rebels, brought a negotiated ceasefire and amnesty in May On 26 May , President Tandja dissolved parliament after the country's constitutional court ruled against plans to hold a referendum on whether to allow him a third term in office.
According to the constitution, a new parliament was elected within three months. See Nigerien constitutional crisis. The military took over the country and President Tandja was put in prison, charged with corruption. The military kept their promise to return the country to democratic civilian rule. A constitutional referendum and national elections were held.
A presidential election was held on 31 January , but as no clear winner emerged, run-off elections were held on 12 March A parliamentary election was held at the same time. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Part of a series on the. Iron Metallurgy in Africa. One Hundred Years of Archaeology in Niger. Journal of World Prehistory. Volume 17, Number 1, June , pp. History of Africa, Second Edition. Martin's Press, New York. Dispute mechanisms in contracts are not always respected and due diligence is extremely important.
Procedures are in place but are often not adhered to because of lack of resources. In , Niger introduced a system of quotas for the commercial import or re-export of wheat flour. Companies wanting to import wheat flour must purchase at least 10 percent of the total volume from a sole local producer, Moulins du Sahel, or compensate them for the value of the product.
A similar quota scheme applies to rice, but the purchase requirement is only three percent. Niger offers incentives that are dependent on the size of the investment and number of jobs that will be created.
Potential tax exemptions include start-up costs; property, industrial and commercial profits; services and materials required for production; and energy use. Exemption periods range from ten to fifteen years and include waivers of duties and license fees. There are no restrictions on foreign companies opening a local office in Niger, though they must obtain a business certificate from the Ministry of Commerce.
The Investment Code has established three different tiers of incentives for investors, based on minimum investment amounts, listed below:. During the investment phase, the approved investments are exempt from import duties and taxes on material and equipment needed for the project that are not available locally.
The advantages provided during the operational phase include exemption from profit tax 35 per cent. Apart from these regimes, two additional incentive schemes are part of the investment code. These apply to companies operating in remote regions, energy, agro-industry, and low-cost housing sectors.
As Niger relies heavily on donor support for basic government functions, it does not have the capacity or capability to carry out large-scale government research or development programs.
The vast majority of these types of programs are funded by foreign governments or NGOs. National government funding covers only salary and very limited operating costs.
Performance requirements are not imposed as a condition for establishing, maintaining, or expanding foreign direct investments. While Niger does require that companies attempt to hire a Nigerien before applying for a work visa for a foreign national, in practice the rule is not enforced. To create a suitable environment for promoting private investment and job creation, labor and employment legislation has been reformed to allow flexibility in employment and to adapt vocational training to the requirements of the job market.
In addition, it allows for a company to appeal to the Minister responsible for Labor if a foreigner is refused a work visa. Niger has one of the lowest internet penetration rates in the world. Technology here lags far behind the developed world. Niger has no regulations regarding data storage.
Foreign and domestic private entities have the right to establish and own business enterprises. Private entities can freely establish, acquire, and dispose of interests in business enterprises. Legally established private-sector companies have the same access to markets, credit, and other business operations as do public enterprises. Foreign ownership of land is permitted but requires authorization from the Ministry of Planning.
The poor legal and physical infrastructures make it difficult and expensive for firms to operate, and an inadequate regulatory framework hampers private sector development. In addition, onerous and inconsistent regulations regarding property ownership impose substantial costs. Interests in property are enforced when the land holder is known, but property disputes are common, particularly involving community-owned land or land in rural areas where customary land titles are still common.
Mortgages are relatively new instruments; Bank Atlantique introduced the first mortgages only last year. The bank retains the title to the property until the loan is repaid. Traditional use rights are at the core of land disputes between Nigerien farmers and traditional nomadic herders.
According to data collected by The World Bank's Doing Business survey, registering property in Niger requires four procedures, takes 35 days and costs nine percent of the property value. Globally, Niger stands at 95 in the ranking of economies on the ease of registering property. In , Niger made transferring property easier by reducing registration fees. Niger ratified the revised Bangui Agreement on May This chiefly serves as the national framework for intellectual property rights.
Niger is a member of the West African Intellectual Property Organization OAPI , which sets the legal framework for protecting intellectual property and approves requests for registration.
Protection is initially granted for ten years and is renewable for an additional ten years. As a signatory to the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property, Niger provides national protection under Nigerien patent and trademark laws to foreign businesses. Despite a legal regime that protects intellectual property rights, the GON lacks the capacity and resources to enforce copyright violations.
Legal structure is weak, enforcement is bad, and infringement on right and theft are common. Counterfeit CDs, videocassettes and pharmaceuticals are readily available. The international property rights index does not rank Niger.
Law enforcement is poorly trained and there are weak administrative controls. Property rights also remain hampered by an ineffective judicial framework and a court system that is vulnerable to political interference. On average, it takes 35 days and 4 procedures to register a property in Niger. Niger does not regularly track and report on seizures of counterfeit goods.
While there have been some cases of seizure, government statistics are not available. For additional information about treaty obligations and points of contact at local IP offices, please see WIPO's country profiles at http: The GON has established laws and policies, but does not enforce them equally, in large part due to corruption and weak governmental systems. Niger is attempting to comply with international norms in its legal, regulatory and accounting systems but frequently falls short.
Rules foster competition, but clear rules are frequently not available. That said, the playing field is level for foreign investors who are willing to put forth the effort to learn the system. Draft bills are not available for public comment, although the Chamber of Commerce or other organizations may be allowed to offer suggestions.
Niger is a member of the U. Foreign and national investors can find detailed information on administrative procedures applicable to investment and income generating operations including the number of steps, name and contact details of the entities and persons in charge of procedures, required documents and conditions, costs, processing time, and legal bases justifying the procedures.
The site is maintained up-to-date and useful. Foreign-owned banks currently control about 80 percent of total assets. The banking system is liquid and well supervised, and a variety of lending opportunities are expected to emerge as the economy continues to grow. There are no limits on the free flow of financial resources. Credit is allocated on market terms and foreigners do not face discrimination. Credit to the private sector is dominated by large corporations, while agriculture, livestock, forestry and fisheries sectors which account for more than 40 percent of GDP receive less than one percent of total bank credit.
The Nigerien banking sector is poorly developed, inefficient, and expensive. All the local banks are subsidiaries of banks based elsewhere in the region. There are no American or European banks. Bank credit to the private sector has been less than 10 percent of GDP and fewer than two percent of Nigeriens have a bank account. There are no restrictions on foreigners' establishment of a bank account. Banking fees are significantly higher than in other countries.
Credit is generally allocated on market terms, but the cost is high and credit is usually extended only to large businesses. Four major commercial banks control roughly 90 percent of deposits. The GON holds shares in several financial institutions. SOEs are also active in services, oil, and uranium.
There are no laws or rules that offer preferential treatment to State-Owned Enterprises. They are subject to the same tax rules and burdens as the private sector, and are subject to budget constraints. Niger is not a member of the OECD and does not adhere to its guidelines. SOEs report directly to the minister responsible for the company, and senior management positions are allocated politically.
However state-owned enterprises are audited by the Court of Accounts, which reports directly to the President. The Ministry of Finance is responsible for oversight and management of public enterprises, including SOEs. Niger does not have any Sovereign Wealth Funds. Beyond Orange Niger, known private sector contribution to development is relatively insignificant despite the presence of large companies in mining, telecommunications. The GON has focused on ensuring existing obligations are met and that communities benefit in compliance with Nigerien law, which states that 15 percent of revenues derived from extractive industries must be returned to the municipality affected by the project.
However, the money is difficult to track and local authorities who do receive funds note the GON has not determined how local governments can spend any income received. As a result, foreign companies carry out CSR projects, but the government is not active and engaged. Typical CSR projects in Niger involve health care, education, and other visible projects. Following a coup in , Niger succeeded in returning to constitutional order with the adoption of a new constitution in November and a series of local, legislative, and presidential elections in early Democratic elections are due to be held again in There is growing political tension between the ruling majority and opposition, since the formation of an inclusive government in August Roving bands pillaged and burned some churches, buildings of the ruling party, Christian homes and bars.
A potential spillover of political unrest in neighboring countries remains a threat to political stability. These countries include Mali, where a UN peacekeeping force - supported by some Nigerien troops - is seeking to maintain a fragile peace after a loose alliance of Islamist organizations, including al Qaida in the Islamic Maghreb and the Mouvement pour l'unicité et le jihad en Afrique de l'ouest MUJAO , took control of northern parts of the country.
In February , Boko Haram, the fundamentalist Islamist terrorist group based in Nigeria, began attacking villages in border areas of Niger. The Diffa Region was particularly hard hit, forcing officials there to implement a state of emergency. About 8, troops from Chad, Niger, Cameroon, and Benin were dispatched to Nigeria to battle the terrorists. Embassy has recommended that U.
Citizens avoid the Diffa Region. Its score has decreased by 0. Niger is ranked 26th out of 46 countries in the Sub-Saharan Africa region, and its overall score is slightly above the regional average Sub-Saharan Africa region. The GON has set up two anti—corruption institutions: Both have been in place since October HALCIA reported that it received 55 complaints in the first four months of , 21 of which it opened cases on and ten of which it referred to the Ministry of Justice for potential prosecution.
However, to date no cases from or prior years have been prosecuted. The Constitution, adopted in , contains provisions for greater transparency in government reporting of revenues from the extractive industries, as well as the declaration of personal assets by government officials, including the President. Key officials from the previous administration were indicted for fraud and corruption in but were provisionally released and no further court dates were set.
The Board recognized the country's efforts in good governance, the engagement and commitment of the GON in the fight against corruption, the respect of political rights, civil liberties, freedom of information, and the adoption of policy reforms to strengthen economic freedom. Niger is party to the UN Anticorruption Convention. Niger has one of the world's fastest growing populations of any country, but lack employment opportunities.
Most available employment is mainly in subsistence farming.
Création dune société doptions binaires | Ifrs forex gain ou perte | Forex trgovina u srbiji | Taux forex de la banque icici aujourdhui | Logiciel doptions binaires dynamiques appelé tc |