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A trade repository TR is an organisation that is established to centrally collect and manage data and the records of OTC derivatives and trades on a secure and confidential basis, and is regulated under EMIR.
The objective is to provide regulatory authorities with transparency in the derivatives markets to facilitate identification and mitigation of systemic risk. In terms of the South African proposed reforms, the design of the TR must ensure that it operates with effective risk controls and can serve the important role of enhancing the transparency of information to relevant authorities and the public, promote financial stability, and support the detection and prevention of risk concentration and market abuse.
Currently, for prudential regulation, the Reserve Bank requires banks to report the volume and value of their South African OTC derivatives transactions. The envisaged TR could assist by providing the Reserve Bank with information relevant to assess the build-up of systemic risks. While no determination has been made to adopt and enforce trading on electronic platforms, going forward it is envisioned that a decision will be made whether or not to require OTC derivatives trades to move to exchange or electronic trading platforms, if authorities consider it appropriate, and will naturally evolve from the market review of the size and scope of the standardised OTC derivatives market.
Given that a significant share of South Africa's OTC derivatives transactions are cross-border, it is important to be mindful of domestic and international economic developments to ensure consistency with international best practice.
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The legal framework in Mauritius is constantly evolving to keep pace with the rapidly changing economic environment. Brexit was a decision that shook the financial world. Representations, covenants and events of defaults the "Core Clauses" are the foundations of loan agreements, and a number of these clauses are often found in a loan agreement. In the Indian rupee was made the sole official currency in the Straits Settlements , but in silver dollars were again legal tender.
In the Straits dollar , pegged at two shillings and fourpence 2s. The bank responded by starting a program of aggressive speculative trading to make up these losses Millman, p. In the late s, Bank Negara, under Governor Jaffar Hussein, was a major player in the forex market.
Its activities caught the attention of many; initially, Asian markets came to realise the influence Bank Negara had on the direction of forex market. Alan Greenspan , the Federal Reserve's chairman, later realised Bank Negara's massive speculation activities and requested the Malaysian central bank to stop it.
In response, bankers began front running Bank Negara's orders. Two years later on Black Wednesday , Bank Negara attempted to defend the value of the British pound against attempts by George Soros and others to devalue the pound sterling.
By , the bank became technically insolvent and was bailed out by the Malaysian Finance Ministry Millman, p. BNM started currency trading as part the wealth diversification strategy in , did very well in the beginning but suffered huge losses in and by was technically insolvent. Against this background, the aim of this exploratory note is twofold.
First, it analyses the logic behind the decision. Second, it evaluates the probable causes of the failure. Simple game theory demonstrated that decision to gamble with taxpayers' money was a dominant strategy defection. To evaluate the probable causes of failure, we employed gamblers' ruin simulator. The findings are as follows: Two explanations why BNM fallen into the trap;.
In , Bank Negara pegged 3. In July , the central bank abandoned fixed exchange rate regime in favour of managed floating exchange rate system an hour after China floated its own currency. During this period there was widespread belief that the ringgit was undervalued and that if the peg was removed, the ringgit would appreciate.
Bank Negara continues to run a negative interest rate differential to USD. The ringgit has appreciated gradually since the peg was abandoned and as at 28 May , it traded at around 3. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For the Moldovan central bank, see National Bank of Moldova. Archived from the original on 20 February Retrieved 4 December Capital control Discount rate Interest rates Money creation Open market operation Sovereign wealth fund.
List of central banks Central banks and currencies of Africa Central banks and currencies of Asia-Pacific Central banks and currencies of the Caribbean Central banks and currencies of Europe Central banks and currencies of Central America and South America.
Federal Government of Malaysia. P denotes West Malaysia. Central Bank of Malaysia Malaysian ringgit.
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